Psychology & Chinese Martial Arts
– Chinese Martial Arts & Psychology
Co-authors: Xiaopeng Wang, Matt Hynes
The Origin of the dialogue
The following is a dialogue between a Western psychologist, Mr Matt Hynes, and a Chinese martial arts (CMA) associate professor, Xiaopeng Wang, on CMA training. It focuses on two key areas: the psychological processes of this traditional oriental training, and how and why its tangible and intangible elements can impact on expected results in terms of better health and well-being.

 

Character introduction
Matt Hynes has over 15 years’ experience as a child psychologist. He currently works from his own private practice at Sage Psychology in Canberra. Matt has a reputation for building deep, respectful bonds with the children he sees. His practice combines his knowledge of attachment psychology, nature mentoring, narrative therapy, neuroscience, mindfulness, movement and play. Matt is a recent convert to tai-chi after training with Dapeng Wang for the last two years.

Associate Professor Xiaopeng Wang, currently serving as a Martial Arts teacher at Tongji University in Shanghai. He graduated from the Martial Arts Faculty of the Shanghai University of Sport in 1993. Xiaopeng practices intensively the Cha Family Martial Arts, the Family of Six Harmonies Heart and Mindfulness Boxing and the Yang Family Tai Chi Boxing and Weaponry. He holds a prominent position and has made an outstanding contribution to curriculum development, pedagogical organisation and promotion within the China national and international martial arts and Tai Chi circles.

 

Q1. (Psychologist, Mr Matt Hynes) I’m interested in the relationship between “Qi” (Chi) and “emotions”. At their most basic level, emotions seem to be very physical. We have language reflecting this such as, I’m feeling ‘down’ (or ‘flat’, ‘deflated’ or ‘stuck’ among other terms). Emotions seem to be related to the body’s internal movements. I think emotions are probably quite different to Qi. Can you explain the difference between the Western concept of “emotions” and the Chinese concept of “Qi”?

A1. (Associate Professor, Xiaopeng Wang) 这个问题很好,也很深刻,中国古代的哲学家将"Qi"分为二种,一种是先天之气,又名"炁QI",此炁乃先天地生,代表着万物未生前的本来面目,一种生命原始本初的状态!另一种是后天之"气qi"。

后天之气主要同呼吸有关也和食饮五谷 (稻、黍、稷、麦、豆) 后的能量的转化及流动有关系。这个是情绪情感所涉及的领域,属于第六意识的范畴,良好的情绪可以令体内气血能量有条不紊,她可以带给人身心健康和旺盛的精力!而长期负面情绪则相反,会令体内血气紊乱,导致六脉 (浮、沉、长、短、滑、涩) 不合,影响脏腑的正常功能。这无疑是对健康不利的,不论是心理还是生理上的!这种后天能量的运化机制,意识可以指挥身体内部的气血运行,所以情感情绪关乎健康!而先天之炁更主要是指万物产生前的本原状态。简单的介绍就是这样。

This is a good question, and it is also very deep. Chinese philosophers in the older era divided Qi into two kinds. One is innate and is known as"炁Qi”. The first type of Qi is born in heaven and earth and represents the original features of all things before they were born as a primordial state of life! The other one is acquired qi.
The acquired qi is mainly related to respiration and to the conversion of the cereal type of food (mainly the five refined and coarse grains稻、黍、稷、麦、豆) to energy and the energy flow within the human body. This is the field of emotion. It belongs to the category of sixth consciousness. A good mood can put one’s blood and energy flow, and their body as a whole, in positive order. It can also bring a person physical and mental health as well as vigour. On the other hand, long-term negative emotions have the opposite effect. As such, they will cause blood and energy disorders, resulting in the incompatibility of the six kinds of pulse images (浮、沉、长、短、滑、涩) of the human body, and they will affect the normal functions of the organs. This is no doubt bad for health, whether it is psychological or physiological. The postnatal energy transport mechanism means that consciousness can command the body’s internal blood and energy operations. So, emotions or feelings are about health! The congenital Qi, though, mainly refers to the primitive state of things. This is a simple explanation.

Q2. I find that practising in front of a teacher is very different to practising alone. It is obvious that a teacher can quickly correct any movement patterns. However, I wonder if there is also something that happens when a student is witnessed by a teacher. It might have something to do with the atmosphere that the teacher creates. Does the mere presence of a teacher change the nature of the practice?

A2. 在教师指导下的练习效果是大不一样的! 优秀教师的示范是多角度的同时也是深层次的!首先教师动作示范的直观性,免去了自己练习时各种意识上的造作与揣摩,这无疑降低了学习难度也节省了学习的时间。

其次教师对错误动作的纠正可以让练习者快速知晓自己的易犯错误及不好的动作习惯,包括微细的错误习惯,这对好习惯的建立是大有帮助的。再次就是教师对正确动作的解说和意念力会加速学生对动作的掌握!

最后是这种教与学的模式不仅可以增进师生间的情感,还对学生健康人格的塑造有不可估量的作用!这样教出来的学生更懂得感恩及对艺术的敬畏!

The effect of the practice under the guidance of the teacher is really different. The demonstration of an excellent teacher is multi-angled and, at the same time, deep-seated. First of all, the intuition of the teacher’s demonstration eliminates all kinds of conscious creation and conjecture in practice, which undoubtedly reduces learning difficulty and saves learning time.

Secondly, the teacher’s correction of erroneous actions can help practitioners quickly understand their own mistakes and bad habits, including fine habits, which is helpful for establishing good habits. Again, the teacher’s explanation and ideation (power of thought) will speed up their students’ mastery of the movements.

Finally, the mode of teaching and learning can not only enhance the emotional connection between teachers and students, it can also play an immeasurable role in shaping the healthy personality of the students! In this way, the students will know more about gratitude and the awe of art.

Q3. Most of our movements in Wushu and Tai Chi are modeled on animal movements. Do animals have a perfect balance of Qi? Why do humans have to practise each day when animals do not?

A3. 中国武术取法于自然是非常有道理的。动物大都生长于自然界,自然界里蕴藏着各种各样的挑战,身体的及心理的,在这种充满危险及恶劣的环境中生存,也迫使动物们在身体上去快速适应自然界各种突如其来的变化,如此才能更好地保护自身的安全。速度、力量、灵敏、耐力、反应、柔韧等一定会被历练的非常棒!

其感知力的强大也是非同寻常的。在这方面由于生存环境条件的不同而导致人与动物的身体素质及感知力的差异是相当明显的。所以猴子的灵活、鹰爪的捉拿、虎的纵扑、蛇的抽缠、燕的灵巧、马的奔腾等等超强能力都是人所不能比的,这有着一种先天及后天的优势。所以人需要取法动物们的长处而弥补自身的不足。人后天的勤加练习是非常必要的!

人的逻辑思维是超越动物的,人对工具的制造及对生存空间的打造是动物不可比的。这是两者之间最主要的不同点。

It is very reasonable for Chinese martial arts to emulate nature’s laws. An animal grows in nature, which is full of various challenges, both physical and psychological, and full of danger. Survival in this harsh environment forces the animal to quickly adapt their body to sudden changes in order to better protect their own safety. Speed, strength, sensitivity, endurance, reaction, flexibility and so on will become strong through practice!

The power of an animal’s perception is also extraordinary. In this respect, the differences in the physicality and perception of human beings and animals are quite obvious. So, the agility of a monkey, the grasp of the eagle’s claws, the tiger’s jump and pounce, a snake’s coil force, the dexterity of a swallow, and the galloping force of a horse all have a capacity that cannot be compared because these constitute a congenital and acquired advantage. Therefore, people need to draw on the strengths of animals to make up for their own shortcomings. It is also necessary for people to practise day after day.

The capacity for logic in human beings far exceeds that of animals as does their ability to manufacture tools and create shelter. This is the main difference between the two.

Q4. It appears Chinese martial artists have had a very different childhood compared to modern-day Australians. Do you think it is possible for an Australian child to develop their practice to the same level as them?

A4. 从技术层面来说,通过正规专业化的训练澳洲的孩子是完全可以做到的!在中国,武术通常被分为几种不同的训练层次和境界:’武艺’、’武功’、’武学’、’武侠’、’武德’及’武道’,这是一门很有次第的修行法脉!

首先’武艺’,它强调的是术,是技术技能技巧,这通过刻苦的反复的用法练习都可以达到!而’武功’更多代表的是通过技术来表达修炼者的内在的气质与涵养,具有强大的感染力是一种可以触动心灵深处艺术魅力!’武学’代表的是丰富的民族文化,她是一切艺术的永恒基石是载体!’武侠’代表的是习武者的一种广大情怀,扶持弱小,慷慨解囊,是正义的化身!’武德’标志着习武者内在的修养,君子有所为有所不为!知取捨而懂进退,也是一种智慧的展现!’武道’是整个修炼法脉的最高境界,是对人与人,人与自然及人与天地关系的领悟,这就是东方人所倡导的"天人合一"的境界!

所以练习者能到达哪种境界,就要看各自的努力及造化了!

Technically, training Australian children through a formal specialisation can definitely be done! In China, martial arts are usually divided into several forms of practice which lead to various levels and realms based on personal pursuit: ‘Wu Yi’ as to martial arts skills, ‘Wu Gong’ as to the accomplishments acquired through all the efforts of martial arts practice, ‘Wu Xue’ as to Wushu-ology, a domain of martial arts knowledge, ‘Wu Xia’ as to martial arts chivalrous men, ‘Wu De’ as to martial arts morality, and ‘Wu Dao’ refers to martial enlightenment (a happy and ultimate way of living). These are inherited from practices that are sequential in nature!

First of all, ‘Wu Yi’ emphases skill, a technical skill and capability which can be achieved through hard and repeated practice of applications! ‘Wu Gong’ is more representative of the expression of the intrinsic temperament and self-cultivation of practitioners through technique with a powerful touch of artistic charm! ‘Wushu-ology’ represents the rich culture of the Chinese nation; it is the eternal cornerstone of all art and is a carrier! ‘Martial arts chivalrous men’ represents a general practitioner’s feelings, supports the weak, is generous, and embodies justice! ‘Wu De’ marks one’s inner cultivation, meaning that the gentleman knows what to do and what not to do, knows to make one’s choice, and understands when to advance or retreat. This is also a display of wisdom. ‘Wu Dao’ is the highest state of the whole inheritance of practice. It is the understanding of the relationships between humans, between humankind and nature, and between humankind and the world. This is the realm of “harmony between humankind and nature” advocated by the Orient.

Thus, what kind of realm the practitioners can reach is a matter of their own efforts and personal creation.